The payment for University fees became a flashpoint for widespread protests in South Africa, which has struggled to provide jobs, education, and housing for many poor people since the end of apartheid in 1994. Violent clashes with police unfolded on campuses in Johannesburg and across the country forcing the interruption of the academic year and the shutdown of several universities in the country. In mid- October 2015, a student led protest movement began in response to an increase in fees at South African universities. The Protests started at the University of Witwatersrand (Wits) and spread to various other universities including the University of Cape Town and Rhodes University. The rapid spread to other universities resulted in widespread damage and discontentment amongst the authorities. The 2015 protest ended when it was announced by the South African government that there would be no tuition fee increases for 2016. Another widespread and costly protest began again in 2016, when the South African Minister of Higher Education announced that there would be fee increases capped at 8% for 2017; however, each institution was given the freedom to decide by how much their tuition would increase. Chaos erupted in various locations with resultant police action. There are some theories that protests had elements of political interference. It is believed that some acts of violence and destruction to property were conducted by opportunists and criminals unrelated to the students.